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New Jersey Militia Units: American Order of Battle Before
the Battle of Trenton
There were three Brigades of non-Continental troops. One under Brig. John Calwalader mostly from Philadelphia. One under Col Griffith and another under Brig. Gen. Philemon Dickinson.
Dickinson's Brigade (Brig. Gen. Philemon Dickinson) (Samuel Stelle Smith, The Battle of Trenton (Monmouth Books, 1965) estimates 500 men)
Burlington County Militia Regiment (Col. Joseph Borden)
Burlington County Militia Regiment (Lt. Col. Thomas Reynolds)
Hunterdon County Militia Regiment (Col. David Chambers)
Hunterdon County Militia Regiment (Col. Nathaniel Hunt)
Hunterdon County Militia Regiment (Col. John Mehelm)
Hunterdon County Militia Regiment (Col. Issac Smith)
small units of militia from other counties
(from Fischer, David Hackett, Washington's Crossing (Oxford University Press, 2004) p.393)
For the full Order of Battle see Fischer.
Also, Fischer gives a chapter in his book (The Opportunity, The Rising of New Jersey) to the rising of militia units around Trenton in December, a subject not really examined in other works.
References to the New Jersey Militia and Units of the
at the Battle of Trenton from Stryker's The Battles of Trenton and Princeton.
Stryker presents some confusing and "all over the place" references to militia in his appendix:
Brigadier-General Nathaniel Heard's Brigade (800 officers and men).
Colonel Philip Van Cortland's regiment, New Jersey militia.
Colonel David Forman's regiment, New Jersey militia.
Colonel Ephriam Martin's regiment, New Jersey militia.
Colonel Joseph Phillips's regiment, New Jersey militia.
Colonel Silas Newcomb's regiment, New Jersey militia.(p309)
This "American Army in the Campaign, 1776-1777" on page 308 in Stryker appears to be based on Heard's return to Washington of September 28, 1776*. It bears little resemblance to the actual disposition of militia troops in mid-December. The placement of militia units prior to the battle of Trenton was under orders of General Washington directly to Col. Cadwalader, Col. Ewing, and General Dickinson on December 12th. Those orders are reproduced in Stryker on pages 310-313. There is no reference to Heard in Fischer, only one reference to him in Stryker, and no apparent communication between him and Washington in the months of the Trenton and Princeton campaign.
*George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 4. General Correspondence. 1697-1799
Nathaniel Heard, September 28, 1776, Report on Brigade Troops (online at memory.loc.gov)
Brigadier-General James Ewing's Division:
New Jersey Militia.
Brigadier-General Philemon Dickinson commanding; Brigade Major, Roberts Hoops; Captain and Aide-de-camp, Frederick Frelinghuysen.
Detachment First regiment, Hunterdon County. Colonel Isaac Smith; Major, Joseph Phillips. (p347)
Field Officers of Troops under Washington's Immediate Command. (This includes the separation of the troops marching on Trenton, General Sullivan taking the right, or River Road, and Washington commanding the left road after crossing the Delaware.)
(No New Jersey Units are mentioned except Artillery):
Knox's Regiment Continental Artillery and State Batteries assigned to this Command:
Eastern company, New Jersey State artillery. Captain, Daniel Neil; Captain-Lieutenant, John Coughty; First Lieutenant, Thomas Clark; Second Lieutenant, John Vandyke; Third Lieutenant, Aaron Clark. The captain in command. 4 officers and 59 enlisted men present. Two guns.
Western company, New Jersey State artillery. Captain, Samuel Hugg; Captain-Lieutenant, Thomas Newark; First Lieutenant, John Wescott; Second Lieutenant, Joseph Dayton. Two guns.
An detailed overview of New Jersey troops, both Militia and Continental Line, in the revolution can be found at http://www.newjerseyroots.org/continental_line.htm